मेहरबाँ

दिल में मेरे ,उनके क़दमों की आहट है

गुज़रते है इस तरह ,दिल की राहों से वो

चाहतों में बसे है ,इस क़दर से

फिर भी अजनबी से लगते हैं ,जाने क्यों

बेसबब हैं बेताबियां मेरी ,जानता हूँ मैं

दिल लगाये बैठा हूँ ,फिर भी उन्हीं से यों

ख़्वाब उनके हरदम ,तसव्वुर भी उनका

चौंक जाता हूँ आहटों पे ,जैसे आये हैं वो

मुहब्बतों का आलम है ,खोया हुआ हूँ मैं

मेहरबाँ होके चले आयेंगे ,शायद वो।

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Digital Economy

The digital economy is the worldwide network of economic activities enabled by information and communications technologies (ICT). It can also be defined more simply as an economy based on digital technologies. Multiple definitions for the term exist, with variations in what should be included in this new economic paradigm.

The term was coined by Don Tapscott, author of the 1995 best-selling book “The Digital Economy: Promise and Peril in the Age of Networked Intelligence”

There are several key components that enable the digital economy. There’s the technology infrastructure itself – the hardware, software and networks. There are the digital processes by which business happens, in other words, the e-business component. Another key component is e-commerce, the digital transactions through which customers buy and obtain products and services from organizations.

The digital economy is sometimes called the Internet economy, the new economy or Web economy. But some economists assert that the digital economy is more advanced and complex than the Internet economy, which, under one definition, simply means economic value derived from the Internet. Additionally, the term “digital economy” is not synonymous with earlier terms used to describe the technology-driven changes happening in 20th century economy, such as “information economy” and “network economy.”

A digital economy involves   the exchange of electronic   goods   and services by electronic businesses. The digital   networking   and   communication infrastructure   creates   a   platform over   which   different   organisation   scan   interact, devise   strategies   and search   for information.

Because of growing population and resource mobilisation ,digital economy is to   business   trading   and   services   only   ,it   involves   every aspect   of   life   from   health to education   and   from business   to   banking.

Digital Economy the so-called revolution in ICT is nowadays associated with computers and Internet, which enable their users to communicate with thousands of people worldwide. Another advantage of ICT is that it enables managers to effectively manage their work in organizations helping with huge databases and decision making.

The combination of networked computing technologies and new business models is creating entirely new markets and new businesses work practices today to form a digital economy. It is a convergence of communications, computing and information technology.

*The essential elements of a digital economy are:*

1. Codification of knowledge,

2. Transformation of information into commodities

3. New ways of organising work and production.

Digital economy is a shift from the industrial economy towards an economy characterised by *intangibles, information, innovation and creativity.*

It can also be described as a common virtual marketplace where consumers and businesses can benefit readily from good value products and services and where suppliers can market and distribute their products more efficiently. It represents the pervasive use of information technology hardware, software, applications and telecommunications in all aspects of the economy including internal operations of organisations that is business, government and non-profit.

The technologies underlying the digital economy also go far beyond internet and personal.

*ADVANTAGES OF A DIGITAL ECONOMY*

The features of a digital economy make it an inherently useful and advantageous system.

• The first and most obvious advantage of a digital economy – minimal space requirements.

• Ease in recovery

• Small physical infrastructure

• Require simple commands and absolutely no human resources

• Eased transactions for customers across the world.

• No transportation requirements

• High Degree of Convenience

• User Friendly

*DISADVANTAGES OF A DIGITAL ECONOMY*

• Requires a substantial initial capital investment

• Require some seed money for research and development

• Requires money for Implementation

*FUTURE OF DIGITAL ECONOMY*

Although it has been sufficiently stated that digital economy is a well established concept in our minds and world, it is also a phenomenon of the future. In other words, there is still a lot of scope for digital technologies to evolve and break their own records.

The digital age has come upon us and is displaying a rapid rate of growth and development.

Digital economy is efficient, cost effective as well as convenient.

The future seems bright and the present, cheerful. The age of the digital economy is here to stay.

Digitisation has provided the solution for storage requirements of articles like books, music, film and newspaper. Libraries filled with archives of newspapers, books and music cassettes would occupy vast amounts of space and labour for maintenance and recovery. However, digital libraries have been a godsend in such situations. With prints of old film and newspapers being digitised, they can be stored in compact forms. In addition to the savings in terms of storage space, there is also the advantage of having ease in recovery of such items as they can be looked up on a central database and obtained within seconds. Also, resources which would otherwise have been used in maintaining these records can now be employed elsewhere. The vast infrastructure that goes into setting up a digital economy (like the internet) is actually very small in physical terms.

Another example mentioned above is ATMs or Automated Teller Machines. These machines require simple commands and absolutely no human resources at the other end in order to facilitate cash withdrawal or balance enquiries. Further, wire transfers of money across the globe and digital cash media like credit cards and debit cards make the requirement of physical presence at a cash source, obsolete. Instant availability of cash and credit has eased transactions for customers across the world. There are no transportation requirements as far as a digital economy is concerned due to instant global movement and immediate availability of services. The virtual nature of these transactions makes them highly convenient. Online medical consults and mailing of diagnostic results make it easier for patients to get second opinions and consults, since their physical presence is not required. Though such services as medical and legal advice require personal interaction, digitisation does provide some degree of convenience and ease to both parties.

As technologies continue to develop rapidly, so does their user-friendliness. Gadgets these days such as mp3 players, tablets and mobile phones, are easy to handle and use superior technologies and softwares at lower costs. Thus a digital economy is efficient, cost effective as well as convenient.

*Disadvantages of a digital economy*

It is natural to look at both sides of the metaphoric coin when forming opinions about it. One of the few drawbacks of a digital economy is that it requires a substantial initial capital investment when establishing the necessary framework for any system. Although digital technologies get cheaper with each innovative development, they require some seed money for research and development as well as implementation. However, it is natural for any new economic framework to have teething problems. Such shortcomings can be resolved by making available the monetary resources required for such a setup.

*The Future of Digital economy*

Although it has been sufficiently stated that digital economy is a well established concept in our minds and world, it is also a phenomenon of the future. In other words, there is still a lot of scope for digital technologies to evolve and break their own records. Although some parts of the world are heavily ensconced in their digital lives, there are still others who are struggling to see the light as far as digital technologies are concerned. The ascent of this digital economy has not been evenly spread across the globe. Such large dissensions in the outreach of a digital economy need to be addressed. Efforts are being made to make digital technologies and gadgets more accessible to the multitudes still unaware of this technological revolution. For instance, India recently developed the world’s cheapest tablet computer which was sold to students at subsidised rates of $35.

The digital age has come upon us and is displaying a rapid rate of growth and development. It has invaded the world and taken everyone and everything in its stride. The future seems bright and the present, cheerful. The age of the digital economy is here to stay.

Uniform Civil Code

In almost all the countries there is one civil code for all the citizens. The basic ideology behind the formulation of a civil code is to end discrimination based on religion or any disparities.

Uniform Civil Code is a code which puts all the citizens equal before law, irrespective of caste, community, religion or gender.

*”Article 44″* of the Constitution of India lays down an important directive principle of state policy, namely, that the State shall endeavour to secure for its citizens, a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India.

*Article 44* was incorporated in the Constitution with the aim to preserve and promote justice, equality and national integrity. However, personal religious laws have been found to act as a big obstacle in the path of achieving this goal. One of the biggest drawbacks of personal religious laws is that it fuels gender inequalities.

Moreover, as clarified by Article 37, Directive Principles are not enforceable by any court, although they are fundamental in the governance of the country.

Today, citizens of India are governed by different personal laws, based on their religion, caste, community, etc. A uniform civil code would ensure that all citizens of India are governed by the same set of secular civil laws in matters of marriage, divorce, maintenance, adoption, inheritance, etc.

*OBJECTIVE OF UNIFORM CIVIL CODE*

The objective underlying a Uniform Civil Code is to enhance national integration by eliminating contradictions based on religious ideologies.

All communities in India would then stand on a common platform on civil matters.

The implementation of a uniform civil code is imperative for both, the protection of the oppressed and the promotion of national integrity and unity.

*SIGNIFICANCE OF UNIFORM C IVIL CODE*

Preamble of the constitution of India resolves to secure justice, liberty, equality and fraternity for “all its citizens.”

Equality before the law is *”gender-inclusive”*.

Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution of India state this explicitly.

_”The need for a uniform civil code stems from the fact that personal laws are discriminatory against women. The absence of a Uniform Civil Code implies that women, in matters of civic life, have no recourse to gender-just laws.”_

*MERITS OF UNIFORM CIVIL CODE*

If a Common Civil Code is enacted and enforced:

•It world help and accelerate national integration.

•Overlapping provisions of law could be avoided.

•Litigation due to personal law world decrease.

•Sense of oneness and the national spirit would be roused.

•The country would emerge with new force and power to face any odds finally defeating the communal and the divisionist forces.

*NEED OF UNIFORM CIVIL CODE*

*Dr.Ambedkar* , the principal architect of the Indian Constitution was of the view that the provision relating to a uniform civil code should be included in the fundamental rights chapter and thus should be made justifiable.

The whole debate can be summed up by the judgment given by *Justice R.M. Sahai*.

He said:

*_”Ours is a secular democratic republic. Freedom of religion is the core of our culture. Even the slightest of deviation shakes the social fibre. But religious practices, violative of human rights and dignity and sacerdotal suffocation of essentially civil and material freedom are not autonomy but oppression. Therefore, a unified code is imperative, both for protection of the oppressed and for promotion of national unity and solidarity.”_*

*CRITICISM*

According to some critics the Uniform Civil Code if implemented in India in this current situation, it will cause huge chaos and riots and will not be accepted by the minority community. Indians are not ready for accepting the uniformity which takes out the individual identity.

Some critiques also say that Uniform Civil Code alone will not help in promoting national integration. What will actually help in uniting the nation is *”dispensation of justice- equitable justice

and not just any law written on paper.”*

*CONCLUSION*

No faith, no religion, can allow the discrimination. No secular state should allow the discrimination based on religion, community, gender. When our constitution guarantees the equality, then allowing discrimination against any citizen or women, is totally unlawful and unconstitutional.

The time is ripe that all the political and religious leaders should come together, for the well being of all the people, to  come to consensus for adopting the Uniform Civil code for all the citizens of the country irrespective of gender.

मन के गीत…

मन तो है मेरा बावरा ,क्या जाने ये जग की रीत

मन से मन के तार जुड़े तो ,हो जाती है प्रीत

मन की बात जो मन तक पहुँचे ,तो है सच्ची प्रीत

मेरे मन की मन में रखे ,वो मेरा मनमीत

मन की मेरे पीर जो समझे, मेरे मन का मीत

मन की मन से बात हुई मन की मन से प्रीतमन कहे मन ही सुने ,कैसी मन की रीत

मन जाने मन ही पहचाने ,मेरे तेरे मन के गीत

अब गये हम काम से…

उनके ख़्याल उनकी तमन्ना लिये हुये

कुछ भीगे हुये अल्फ़ाज़ हैं

छुपा के जो दिल में मैंने रखे हैं

मुहब्बत के कुछ राज़ हैं

इज़हार ए मुहब्बत करूँ कैसे

चल देते हैं लब खुलने से पहले

कुछ अलग ही उनके अन्दाज़ हैं

नज़रों से दिल में उतरे हैं इस तरह

ख़ुद रहते हैं ,न रहने देते हैं आराम से

आशिक़ी भी क्या शै है जनाब

काम के आदमी थे,अब गये हम काम से